YS- Truman Doctrine

Greece was supposed to be in the western sphere of influence due to the agreements that were made in Yalta and Potsdam in exchange the west would allow Stalin to keep Poland in his sphere of influence. In 1947 Greece had a civil war where the communist side wanted to overthrow the nationalist side which were gaining support from Britain and later on US. February 1947 British warned USA that they could not maintain troops in Greece, and being very close to withdrawal posing another threat of communist takeover which was ultimately why Truman Doctrine was issued. Truman introduced the Truman Doctrine to fight back against the communist side. Also West believed Stalin forced countries in Eastern Europe into accepting communist government by, rigging the elections to allow communist parties to win the elections. in 1947 Cominform was introduced to spread communism and to protect states from US aggression.

“[}Harry Truman believes that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”. Harry S. Truman

The speech was done by Truman to appeal to the congress to the crisis of international situation and how Europe was increasingly becoming divided into two mutually hostile blocs. June 1947, after extensive consultations in Washington, General George Marshall, the new US secretary of State, made his historic offer of an aid package for Europe. Marshall plan was announced 5th June 1947. General Marshall was sent to investigate the crisis of economic and social problems which aroused in Europe after the World War 2. Found out that most of the countries in Europe were suffering from poverty which meant that US would have to come out of their policy of isolationism, to contain communism by stopping these poor countries from turning into communist. Truman had asked for 17 billion dollars but the congress gave him 13 billion dollars to help relieve the poverty which was current in Europe. However, Stalin  forbade any of the countries in Eastern Europe from taking Marshall aid which meant the aid wouldn’t be preventing communist spread where the Americans had been aiming to stop it. Stalin suspected that the offer masked an attempt by the USA to interfere in the domestic affairs of the European states, but he sent Molotov to Paris to discuss further details with the British and the French. The soviets certainly wanted financial aid from the USA but without any conditions attached. Stalin feared that a joint programme would enable US economic power to undermine Soviet influence in Eastern Europe by encouraging free trade and the exchange of ideas with the west and growth of capitalism. On 16th July detailed negotiations on the Marshall Plan began to take place in Paris, where 16 western European nations, including Turkey and Greece, were represented. Eastern Europe was invited but Stalin rejected them from attending. Each western country had their own agenda for instance, the French wanted to ensure their own economy ha preference in receiving US aid over the economic needs of Bizonia. The western European states also asked for 29 billion, far more than was ready to give. US officials immediately set up an Advisory Steering Committee.However, in 1948, the Soviet Union undertook a hostile coup d’état takeover of Czechoslovakia so that almost the entirety of Eastern Europe was both communist and under the Soviet Sphere except for Yugoslavia which was ruled by Tito. This hostile act from Stalin caused an immediate response from Congress; a retaliation in the form of a billion dollar recovery plan. Also this would create a large and potentially prosperous market which would act as a barrier to the further spread of communism.

Soviet response, Stalin’s decision to put pressure on the Eastern European states to boycott the Paris conference marked the end of his attempt to cooperate with the USA and maintain the Grand Alliance. in September 1947 he invited the leaders of the Eastern European, French and Italian communist parties to a conference at szklarska Poreba in Poland to discuss setting up the communist information Bureau(Cominform) which would coordinate the policies and tactics of tactics of the communist parties both in the satellites states and western European. Communist parties would have to take over power themselves and create societies whose economy and social system would be modelled on the soviet system.

 

 

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