The Manhattan Project was created by American scientists, mostly refugees from fascist regimes and made from 1942-1945. They first tested the atomic bomb on New Mexico on July 16 1945. Then testing the second time by dropping it on Hiroshima and Nagasaki which had a massive impact on the state of the world. With this, Truman hoped that this would pressurize the Soviet Union into allowing free elections in Eastern Europe. However, the opposite happened and Stalin became more cautious and strengthening his borders.
Melita Norwood was a spy for the Soviets that went to Britain and worked with the people on creating the atomic bomb in 1943. She is currently the longest living operative for Russia. Melita had been sending documents and information regarding the atomic bomb to the Soviets, which allowed them to test their atomic bomb in 1949.
The Baruch plan was created in 1946 by the US for the international control of atomic weapons like the bomb that was created by America and Russia. Aimed to control the competition by using the UN to watch over the nuclear arms (the bombs) in order to maintain nuclear monopoly. But it was declined by the Soviets meaning that control of the nuclear weapons was impossible and tensions grew.
External factors of the Arms race – The growing hostility was grown by the increase in arms by both sides. The US had a nuclear monopoly until USSR had also created one. The US were concerned with the rapid growth of the Soviet resources. The desire for nuclear superiority was the only way to reinforce their defenses.
First Lightning and US responses
The first lightning was named after the successful testing of the atomic bomb by the Soviets. However, the USA were very surprised as to how the Soviets were able to create the atomic bomb at a much earlier date. Because the USSR were on equal grounds with the USA in holding the atomic bomb, this resulted in the creation of Hydrogen bomb by the USA in 1952. The Hydrogen bomb was 1000 times stronger than a normal atomic bomb, that had long lasting radiation effects. The USA tested their Hydrogen bomb at 1952, following by USSR that tested their one at 1955.
The missile gap did predict that the USA began to believe that USSR had superior missile capabilities that threatened USA more. They predicted that USSR probably had more missiles in numbers and a better technology. Eisenhower feared that if they didn’t reestablish their nuclear bombs and attempt to gain advantages over USSR in weapon capabilities, they would no longer be capable to prevent the Soviet missiles. BUT the USA had responded to this by creating the ABM (anti ballistic missiles) designed to intercept and destroy ballistic missiles.
End of the Cold War
Due to the costs of the arms race the ussr could not continue this anymore and this had and the pressure of trying to match US’ capability had led to their own downfall and brought about the collapse of the USSR, ending the Cold War with USA with a higher advantage.