Development of the Cold War
Issues of Greece
Greece was within the Soviets sphere of influence and its land boundary is shared with Bulgaria in the north and Albania in the northwest. In February 1947, the British informed Truman that they were pulling out of Greece as they could not afford to spend finance on keeping the war going. This was all due to the fact that the Greek Communists were trying to take over the government by force and Truman was not going to let this happen. He acted by sending American soldiers to Greece and on March 12th 1947 he told Congress that it was America’s duty to preserve freedom and democracy within Europe. Stalin did not take any part of the Civil War and promised not to try to take over Greece, however he did not try and sop the Greek Communists from trying to take over the government by force. The USA however did have little evidence to support the fact that Stalin was involved in a Stalinist expansion within the country as the Prime Minister of Czech mysteriously fell out of a window and then a Stalinist took over. This grew suspicion within the USA’s trust of the Soviets and loosened their bond.
In June 1947, The American General George Marshall went to Europe to see what was needed in order to stop the expansion of Communism. He returned with the impression that people were far too poor to support themselves and were close in turning to Communism. He recommended an injection of $17 billion cash for aid in order to get the European economy stable and going again. Yet at first, Congress refused to send over such a large amount of money but then in February 1948, Czechoslovakia turned to Communism. Following these events in March 1948, Congress voted for Marshall aid to reach Europe and the USA gave $13 billion in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of the World War and had the political purpose of keeping communism at bay from spreading the other countries.
The Truman Doctrine
On March 12, 1947, President Harry S. Truman announced to Congress that it was Americas policy to stop the Soviets from expanding during the Cold War. This public announcement made it clear to the Soviets that the USA would do anything in their power to stop communism from expanding and that they will do whatever they can in order to keep the USSRs threats away from Greece and Turkey. Truman told Congress that “it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” It became the full fledged foundation of American foreign policy and led to the formation of NATO in 1949 which was a military alliance that is in effect to this day.